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Progression of Language – Geography

Key stage 1 

Year 1 
place  a specific point of interest  

location with distinctive human/physical features 

near/far  distance between places 
above/below  higher or lower than something 
left/right  relative directions 
map  representation of an area from above 
globe  model of the Earth 
human  related to people 
physical  related to nature and environment 
urban  related to a city or town 
rural   related to the countryside 
weather  conditions of the atmosphere 
seasons  Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter 
United Kingdom  the country made up of England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland 
city  large urban area 
town  smaller urban area 
village  small settlement in a rural area 


Year 2 
locality  neighbourhood or surrounding area 
continent  large landmass e.g. Africa, Europe 
ocean  large areas of sea e.g. Pacific, Atlantic 
equator  imaginary line dividing the Earth into north/south hemispheres 
North/South Poles  most northernly/southerly points on Earth 
aerial view  view from above 
bird’s-eye view  view form a high vantage point 
sketch map  informal map showing key features 
key  explains the symbols on a map 
symbol  Pictures used to represent something on a map 
residential  an area where people live 
business  an area with offices, companies etc 
retail  an area for shops and commerce 
landmark  significant or easily recognisable feature 
precipitation  rain, snow, sleet, hail 
temperature  how hot or cold something is 


Lower key stage  2 

Year 3/4 
hemispheres  halves of the Earth north/south of equator 
climate  long-term weather patterns 
biome  distinct ecosystem e.g. tundra, desert, grassland 
latitude  imaginary lines running horizontally across the Earth 
longitude  imaginary lines running vertically down the Earth 
settlement  place where people establish a community 
hamlet  very small settlement or village 
facilities  important services needed by a community 
land use  human activities taking place on an area of land 
economy  system of production, trade, consumption 
trade  exchange of goods or services 
natural resources  materials from nature used for production e.g. oil 
fieldwork  practical work conducted outside 
survey  gather information through questions 
region  area defined by shared features 
vegetation belts  zones with distinct plant species 
The Tropics  area between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn 
data  facts and statistics collected for analysis 
evidence  available body of facts used to draw conclusions 
population  number of people living in a place 
transportation  moving people/goods from one place to another 
export  sending goods/services to another country 
import  bringing goods/services to another country 
erosion  breaking down/wearing away of rock/soil 
deposition  accumulation of eroded material 
source  start point of a river 
mouth  end point where river meets sea/lake 
tributary  smaller river or stream flowing into a larger one 
watershed`  area drained by a river and its tributaries 
meander  bend or curve in a river’s course 
floodplain  flat land around a river prone to flooding 
flood  overflow of water beyond normal limits 


Upper key stage  2 

Year 5/6 
time zones  areas in the same standard time 
climate change  long-term shifts in weather patterns 
sustainability  meeting present needs without compromising future 
Ordinance Survey map  detailed topographic map of UK 
globalisation  increasing global interconnection through trade 
ecosystems  community of living and non-living things 
development  progress in quality of life, education, wellbeing 
economic activity  production, distribution, trade of goods, services 
satellite imagery  remote sensing images of the Earth from space 
population density  number of people per unit of area 
choropleth map  map with shaded areas to show differences